Receptive and Expressive Language Developmental Motor Milestones

Have you ever wondered if your child is on target with their speech and language development?  We have come up with an easy to read checklist to track his or her developmental progress:

Birth to 3 months

  • Smiles at the sound of your voice
  • Makes cooing, gurgling sounds
  • Turns head toward direction of sound
  • Communicates hunger, fear, discomfort (through crying or facial expression)

3 months to 6 months

  • Begins to respond to the word “no”
  • Responsive to changes in your tone of voice and to sounds other than speech
  • Babbles in a speech-like way and uses many different sounds, including sounds that begin with p, b, and m

6 months to 12 months

  • Responds to own name
  • Begins to respond to “no”
  • Turns and looks in the direction of sounds
  • Responds to sound by making sounds
  • Uses voice to express joy and displeasure
  • Knows familiar faces
  • Understands words for common items such as “cup,” “shoe,” or “juice”
  • Responds to requests (“Come here” or “Want more?”)
  • Communicates using gestures such as waving or holding up arms

12 months to 18 months

  • Tries to “talk” with you through babbling
  • Tries to imitate words
  • Says “dada” and “mama”
  • Uses exclamations, such as “oh-oh!”
  • Recognizes family members’ names
  • Follows simple commands (“roll the ball”)
  • Responds to “no”
  • Uses simple gestures, such as shaking head for “no”

18 months to 24 months

  • Knows a few parts of the body and can point to them when asked
  • Understands simple questions (“Where’s your shoe?”)
  • Enjoys simple stories, songs, and rhymes
  • Points to pictures, when named, in books
  • Acquires new words on a regular basis
  • Uses some one- or two-word questions (“Where kitty?” or “Go bye-bye?”)
  • Puts two words together (“More cookie” or “No juice”)
  • Asks specifically for his/her mother or father
  • Uses “hi,” “bye,” and “please,” with reminders
  • Requests items or actions by pointing or by using one word
  • Directs another’s attention to an object or action
  • Laughs at silly actions (ex. wearing a bowl as a hat)

24 months to 36 months

  • Points to 5-6 parts of a doll when asked
  • Uses 2-3 word sentences to verbalize desires and feelings
  • Asks for information about an object (ex. “shoe?” while pointing to shoe box)
  • Hum or tries to sing
  • Listens to short rhymes
  • Likes to imitate parents
  • Takes turns in play with other children
  • Treats a doll or stuffed animal as though it were alive
  • Refers to self by name and use “me” and “mine”
  • Knows some spatial concepts such as “in”, “on”
  • Knows descriptive words such as “big”, “happy”
  • Begins to use plurals such as “shoes” or “socks” and regular past tense verbs such as “jumped”
  • Follows two step directions

36 months to 48 months

  • Groups objects such as foods, clothes, etc.
  • Identifies colors
  • Able to describe the use of objects such as “fork,” “car,” etc.
  • Uses verbs that end in “ing,” such as “walking” and “talking”
  • Answers simple questions such as “What do you do when you are hungry?”
  • Match objects that have same function (as in putting a cup and plate together)
  • Speaks in sentences of five to six words
  • Understands the concepts of “same” and “different”
  • Tells stories
  • Follows three-part commands (ex. “Put the toys away, wash your hands, and come eat.”)
  • Recalls parts of a story

48 months to 60 months

  • Understands the concepts of  “big,” “little,” “tall,” “short”
  • Able to identify situations that would lead to happiness, sadness, or anger
  • Uses “a,” “an,” and “the” when speaking
  • Asks direct questions (“May I?” “Would you?”)
  • Wants explanations of “why” and “how”
  • Relates a simple experience she has had recently
  • Often prefer playing with other children to playing alone, unless deeply involved in a solitary task
  • Speaks sentences of more than five words
  • Uses future tense

For further information contact us at 941-360-0200 or visit us at www.pediatrictherapysolution.com

References

http://www.lpch.org/DiseaseHealthInfo/HealthLibrary/growth/aaslm.html

http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/devel2.htm

http://giftedkids.about.com/od/gifted101/p/milestones.htm

 

 

 

The Tricky “R” Sound

It’s not unusual to hear a 3 year old talk about “wabbits” and “wainbows,” but when does the /r/ sound become an articulation concern?

Speech sound errors can be developmental in nature and, with maturity, some children may grow out of it.  Other children, due to various factors such as oral motor delays, past or present hearing difficulties, or other unknown causes, may keep using these immature speech sound patterns as they get older.

According to Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation-2, a standardized test commonly used to assess articulation skills, 85% of children master /r/ and /r/ blends by age 6.  As speech language pathologists, we typically wait until this age to determine if errors are developmental in nature or true disorders.  We may choose, however, to address /r/ sound errors at an earlier age, depending on the child’s overall speech intelligibility and other factors.

/R/ is a complicated sound due to the various oral motor structures involved and due to the many ways in which /r/ appears in words.

Unlike earlier developing sounds like “b” or “p”, which are made primarily using our lips and our voice, the “r” sound requires proper placement of the lips and tongue.  The /r/ sound can also vary greatly, depending on where it occurs in the word.  Some children may be able to say prevocalic ‘r’ sounds (those occurring before a vowel, as in “rabbit”) with a correct “r” sound, but have difficulty with r blends (br-, tr-, dr-, etc) or vocalic r sounds.  The vocalic r occurs when r is between vowels (as in cherry) or after a vowel (as in car or teacher). 

Correct oral motor placement is key to /r/ sound production.  Most people make the /r/ sound in one of two ways – with their tongue bunched or retroflexed (curled).  A bunched /r/ sound occurs when the middle of the tongue is bunched in the center of the mouth and a retroflexed /r/ sound requires the tongue tip to be slightly curled up and back in the mouth.  With both methods, the sides of the tongue are lightly touching the back molars. 

Here are some tips and techniques you can use to help your child become more proficient with that tricky /r/ sound:

Demonstrate correct tongue placement – show your child how their tongue should be tight and bunched when making an ‘r’ sound – this can be done using a play dough “tongue” or simply a hand gesture to show that the tongue is bunched and the tongue tip slightly back.  You can also use peanut butter, a lollipop, or other sticky flavorful food on the top back molars, to help your child “find” where the their tongue should be touching.

Work from an /l/ sound – Have your child make an /l/ sound.  Then, instruct him/her to slide the tongue back along the roof of the mouth while vocalizing.  This will help get the tongue into position for the retroflex /r/ sound.

Use silly sounds to encourage /r/ - make the sound of a cat purring (“purrrrrrrrrr”), a tiger growling (“grrrrrrrrrrr”), or a rooster crowing (“rrr rrr rrr rrrrr rrrrrrrrrrr”) to practice the /r/ sound

Silent /k/ - If your child is able to make a /k/ sound, have him/her get the tongue into position for this sound (tight and far back in the mouth), and then growl!

Get rid of that /w/ - If your child is making a /w/ instead of an /r/ sound, ask him/her to smile when making the /r/.  This encourages the lips to be drawn back instead of rounded, getting closer to a good /r/ sound.