CAS is a motor speech disorder that affects a child’s ability to clearly and correctly produce syllables and words. The child knows what he or she wants to say, but his/her brain has difficulty coordinating the muscle movements necessary to say those words. The child may have significantly limited and/or unclear speech.
What Causes CAS?
Currently the cause of CAS is unknown. Most often no specific cause is found. Some children may, however, have CAS as a part of a larger neurological diagnosis or as part of a genetic or mitochondrial disorder, (2009. Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America).
Treatment of CAS
Research shows the children with CAS have more success when they receive frequent (3-5 times per week) and intensive treatment. Receiving feedback from a number of senses, such as tactile/visual/verbal cues is often helpful. With this multi-sensory feedback, the child can more readily repeat syllables, words, sentences and longer utterances to improve muscle coordination and sequencing for speech(1997-2013 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association).
Contains 225 visual referent speech cards targeting the syllable shapes that children with apraxia of speech need to become effective vocal/verbal communicators. The accompanying 52-page manual explains the Kaufman Speech to Language Protocol (K-SLP) methods and how to get children started on the road to combining consonants and vowels to form words.
Word FLIPS for Learning Intelligible Production of Speech
Word FLIPS includes three sections of identical picture words with four tabs in each section that divide the words according to articulatory placement. Begin working on severe CAS by having them repeat identical earlier developing sounds, such as “boo-boo-boo.” Older or more verbal children can practice a variety of sequences, such as “tie-tea-shoe” as a warm-up to practicing sentences.
Proloquo2Go® is an award-winning Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) solution for iPad, iPhone and iPod touch for people who have difficulty speaking or cannot speak at all. Providing a “voice” to over 50,000 individuals around the world, Proloquo2Go enables people to talk using symbols or typed text in a natural-sounding voice that suits their age and character.
Apps for CAS
Apraxia Ville has multiple levels, both vowel and consonant targets, and the ability to create custom words.
LinguiSystems Apraxia Cards provides sets of words organized by syllable structures. The app has two activities, a receptive activity called “touch” and an expressive activity called “say”.
Sly Apraxia: Provides 125 images organized into different syllable structure categories. Sly Apraxia app includes CV, VC, CVC, CVCV & Multisyllabic categories.
Here are some common questions that I run into when working in a school or a clinic setting from professionals and parents.
Q: Is there a difference between Speech and Language Therapy?
A: Yes!Speech and Language therapy two different entities. A speech disorder refers to a problem with the actual production of sounds, whereas a language disorder refers to a difficulty understanding or appropriately putting words together to communicate ideas.
Q: Are there different types of speech disorders?
A: Yes, there are four main areas:
An Articulation disorder or Phonological disorder. An articulation disorder refers to incorrect sound production. A phonological disorder refers to incorrect sound patterns. These disorders can greatly reduce intelligibility in conversation.
A Fluency disorder refers to stuttering. This is when the flow of speech is characterized by abnormal stops, repetitions, and/or prolonging sounds.
A Voice disorder refers to problems with pitch, volume, or quality of the voice.
Dysphagia/oral feeding disorders refer to difficulties with eating and swallowing.
Q: Are there different types of language disorders?
A: Yes, there are two main areas:
A Receptive disorder is characterized by difficultly understanding or processing language.
A Expressive disorder is characterized by difficulty expressing thoughts and wants/needs, limited vocabulary, or inability to use language in a socially appropriate way.
Q: What types of interventions are used in speech/language therapy?
A: There are numerous types of interventions based on what deficits are present. Listed below are some of the most widely used therapies.
Interventions for articulation and phonological disorders: minimal pair therapy, paired auditory, visual, and tactile stimuli in intensive drills, traditional articulation therapy (Van Riper, 1978), and training sound combinations (CV, VC, CVC…).
Interventions for fluency disorders: fluency shaping, traditional stuttering therapy (Van Riper, 1958), and diaphragmatic breathing.
Interventions for voice disorders: teaching good vocal hygiene, reducing/stopping vocal abusive behaviors, altering pitch, volume, or breathe support, and stress reduction/relaxation exercises.
Interventions for dysphagia/oral feeding disorder: sensory stimulation, pacing/feeding strategies, oral motor exercises, maneuvers, adaptive equipment/utensils, diet modification, postural/positioning techniques, and behavioral interventions.
Interventions for expressive language disorders: increasing vocabulary, teaching strategies for social language, increasing ability to answer WH questions, augmentative devices, and strategies to increase syntax skills.
Interventions for receptive language disorders: increasing vocabulary, strategies to improve the ability to follow directions, and strategies to improve comprehension of WH questions.